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Glutathione GSH constitutes the single most important antioxidant in neurons, whereas iron causes oxidative stress that leads to cell damage and death. Although GSH and iron produce opposite effects on redox cell status, no mechanistic relationships between iron and GSH metabolism are known. In this work, we evaluated in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells the effects of iron accumulation on intracellular GSH metabolism. After 2 d exposure to increasing concentrations of iron, cells underwent concentration-dependent iron accumulation and a biphasic change in intracellular GSH levels. Increasing iron from 1 to 5 muM resulted in a marked increase in intracellular oxidative stress and increased GSH levels. Increased GSH levels were due to increased synthesis. Further increases in iron concentration led to significant reduction in both reduced GSH and total GSH + 2 x GSSG glutathione. Cell exposure to high iron concentrations 20-80 muM was associated with a marked decrease in the GSH-GSSG molar ratio and the GSH half-cell reduction potential. Moreover, increasing iron from 40 to 80 muM resulted in loss of cell viability. Iron loading did not change GSH reductase activity but induced significant increases in GSH peroxidase and GSH transferase activities. The changes in GSH homeostasis reported here recapitulate several of those observed in Parkinson-s disease substantia nigra. These results support a model by which progressive iron accumulation leads to a progressive decrease in GSH content and cell reduction potential, which finally results in impaired cell integrity.



Author: Gallardo, Vivian; - Muñoz, Patricia; - Tapia, Victoria; - Esparza, Andrés; - Salazar, Julio; - Speisky Cosoy, Hernán; - Núñe

Source: http://repositorio.uchile.cl/



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