Young smoker -ABCD- vascular assessment: a four-step ultrasound examination for detecting peripheral, extra and intra-cranial early arterial damageReport as inadecuate




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BMC Cardiovascular Disorders

, 16:147

Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk

Abstract

BackgroundCigarette smoking is known as a major risk factor in the pathogenic mechanisms of stroke, coronary and peripheral artery disease CAD and PAD, even in young subjects. The aim of this study is the creation of a four-step ultrasound examination to evaluate and monitor the peripheral, the extra and the intra-cranial assessment of the arterial early damage in smokers. The evaluations of A , the Ankle-brachial index, ABI, B , the Breath holding index, BHI, C , the Carotid intima media thickness, CIMT, and D , the Diameter of the abdominal aorta represent the -ABCD- assessment.

MethodsThirty-eight healthy smokers and 43 controls underwent A , calculated for each leg. B was calculated after determination of subjects’ flow velocity of middle cerebral artery MCA by trans-cranial colour Doppler TCCD before and after 30 s of apnoea at baseline and just after smoking a cigarette, to simulate the chronic and acute effects of smoking. Finally, C and D evaluation were assessed using a high-resolution B-mode ultrasound.

ResultsSmokers presented higher values of CIMT mean and maximal, and lower BHI both at baseline and just after smoking p < 0.01, though in the normal range. No significant differences were found for A and D between smokers and non- smokers.

ConclusionsOur results underline the importance of the assessment of B and C, that, though in the normal range, present significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. These data could drive the screening between smokers in age-related manner. Moreover, the -ABCD- examination could represent a valid method to detect and then monitor smokers’ vascular damage. Although it is far to be considered a screening and routine tool, it should be contemplated in a wider context of possible not-invasive practical screening and follow-up modalities. This would be designed to implement preventive strategies and tools aimed at discouraging tobacco addiction and monitoring cardiovascular risk patients.

KeywordsSmoking Ankle-brachial index Breath holding index Carotid intima-media thickness Abdominal aorta diameter Early arterial damage  Download fulltext PDF



Author: Chiara Mozzini - Alder Casadei - Giuseppe Roscia - Luciano Cominacini

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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