Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in HumansReport as inadecuate




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Current Obesity Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 413–423

Topical Collection on Metabolism

Abstract

Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis AT refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure REE and nREE which are independent from changes in fat-free mass FFM and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain’s energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions e.g., reproduction. Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

KeywordsEnergy expenditure Resting energy expenditure REE Total energy expenditure TEE Diet-induced thermogenesis DIT Activity-related energy expenditure AEE Exercise activity thermogenesis EAT Non-exercise activity thermogenesis NEAT Energy balance Metabolic efficiency Body composition Fat mass Fat-free mass FFM Total body water TBW Obesity Leptin Insulin Thyroid hormones SNS activity Adaptive thermogenesis AT Caloric restriction Overfeeding Weight loss Weight maintenance This article is part of the Topical Collection on Metabolism

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Author: Manfred J. Müller - Janna Enderle - Anja Bosy-Westphal

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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