Serendipitous Isolation of Non-Vibrio Bacterial Strains Carrying the Cholera Toxin Gene from Environmental Waters in IndonesiaReport as inadecuate




Serendipitous Isolation of Non-Vibrio Bacterial Strains Carrying the Cholera Toxin Gene from Environmental Waters in Indonesia - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

International Journal of MicrobiologyVolume 2013 2013, Article ID 406078, 6 pages

Research Article

Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Rokko-dai 1-1, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan

Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Airlangga University, Raya Mulyorejo, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia

Research Center for Food Safety and Security, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Rokko-dai 1-1, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan

Received 30 September 2013; Revised 5 November 2013; Accepted 5 November 2013

Academic Editor: Barbara H. Iglewski

Copyright © 2013 Yusuke Shibata et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We initially attempted to isolate a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype that carries a novel variant of the cholera toxin gene ctxAB from environmental waters of Indonesia, where the seventh cholera pandemic by V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype began. Nested PCR targeting the gene revealed that a total of eight strains were found to carry ctxAB. However, sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of these isolates showed they were not V. cholerae but were either Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pantoea, or Aeromonas. Subsequent nested PCR assays targeting all genes known to be encoded on the CTX phage i.e., zot, ace, orfU, cep, rstB, rstA, and rstR showed that one isolate belonged to the Enterobacter genus carried all the genes tested, while the other isolates lacked either 2, 3, or 5 of the genes. This evidence suggests that phages with ctxAB are genetically diverse and can infect not only V. cholerae and V. mimicus but also other species and genera in the form of a pseudolysogen.





Author: Yusuke Shibata, Ryohei Nomoto, Garry Cores de Vries, and Ro Osawa

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/



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