The introduction of mesenchymal stromal cells induces different immunological responses in the lungs of healthy and M. tuberculosis infected miceReport as inadecuate

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Mesenchymal stromal cells MSC have strong immunomodulatory properties and therefore can be used to control inflammation and tissue damage. It was suggested recently that MSC injections can be used to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis TB. However, MSC trafficking and immunomodulatory effects of MSC injections during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mtb infection have not been studied. To address this issue we have analyzed MSC distribution in tissues and local immunological effects of MSC injections in Mtb infected and uninfected mice. After intravenous injection, MSC accumulated preferentially in the lungs where they were located as cell aggregates in the alveolar walls. Immunological analysis of MSC effects included detection of activated, IFN-γ and IL-4 producing CD4+ lymphocytes, the frequency analysis of dendritic cells CD11c+F4-80 and macrophages CD11c-F4-80+ located in the lungs, the expression of IA-IE and CD11b molecules by these cells, and evaluation of 23 cytokines-chemokines in lung lysates. In the lungs of uninfected mice, MSC transfer markedly increased the percentage of IFN-γ+ CD4+ lymphocytes and dendritic cells, elevated levels of IA-IE expression by dendritic cells and macrophages, augmented local production of type 2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, and downregulated type 1 and hematopoietic cytokines IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF. Compared to uninfected mice, Mtb infected mice had statistically higher -background- frequency of activated CD69+ and IFN-γ+ CD4+ lymphocytes and dendritic cells, and higher levels of cytokines in the lungs. The injections of MSC to Mtb infected mice did not show statistically significant effects on CD4+ lymphocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, only slightly shifted cytokine profile, and did not change pathogen load or slow down TB progression. Lung section analysis showed that in Mtb infected mice, MSC could not be found in the proximity of the inflammatory foci. Thus, in healthy recipients, MSC administration dramatically changed T-cell function and cytokine-chemokine milieu in the lungs, most likely, due to capillary blockade. But, during Mtb infection, i.e., in the highly-inflammatory conditions, MSC did not affect T-cell function and the level of inflammation. The findings emphasize the importance of the evaluation of MSC effects locally at the site of their predominant post-injection localization and question MSC usefulness as anti-TB treatment.

Author: Tatiana Nenasheva , Alexander Nikolaev , Daniar Diykanov, Anna Sukhanova, Evgenii Tcyganov, Alexander Panteleev, Irina Bocharova,



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