Genotype diversity and molecular evolution of noroviruses: A 30-year 1982-2011 comprehensive study with children from Northern BrazilReport as inadecuate




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A chronologically comprehensive 30-year study was conducted that involved children living in Belém, in the Amazon region of Northern Brazil, who participated in eight different studies from October 1982 to April 2011. The children were followed either in the community or in health units and hospitals in order to identify the norovirus genotypes involved in infections during this time. A total of 2,520 fecal specimens were obtained and subjected to RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing for regions A, B, C, D and P2 of the viral genome. An overall positivity of 16.9% n = 426 was observed, and 49% of the positive samples were genotyped 208-426, evidencing the presence of several genotypes as follows: Polymerase gene GI.P4, GII.Pa, GII.Pc, GII.Pe, GII.Pg, GII.Pj, GII.P3, GII.P4, GII.P6, GII.P7, GII.P8, GII.P12, GII.P13, GII.P14, GII.P21, GII.P22, and VP1 gene GI.3, GI.7, GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.8, GII.10, GII.12, GII.14, GII.17, GII.23. The GII.P4-GII.4 genotype determined by both open reading frames ORFs partial polymerase and VP1 genes was found for 83 samples, and analyses of the subdomain P2 region showed 10 different variants: CHDC 1970s, Tokyo 1980s, Bristol 1993, US 95-96, Kaiso 2003, Asia 2003, Hunter 2004, Yerseke 2006a, Den Haag 2006b subcluster -O- and New Orleans 2009. Recombination events were confirmed in 47.6% n = 20 of the 42 samples with divergent genotyping by ORF1 and ORF2 and with probable different breakpoints within the viral genome. The evolutionary analyses estimated a rate of evolution of 1.02 x 10−2 and 9.05 x 10−3 subs.-site-year using regions C and D from the VP1 gene, respectively. The present research shows the broad genetic diversity of the norovirus that infected children for 30 years in Belém. These findings contribute to our understanding of noroviruses molecular epidemiology and viral evolution and provide a baseline for vaccine design.



Author: Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira , Renato da Silva Bandeira, Darleise de Souza Oliveira, Liann Filiphe Pereira dos Santos, Yvone

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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