Antibiofilm and antibacterial effects of specific chitosan molecules on Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with bovine mastitisReport as inadecuate




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Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens causing bovine intramammary infections IMIs and mastitis. Mastitis is the primary cause for the use of antibiotics in dairy farms but therapeutic failure is often observed. One of the reasons for the lack of effectiveness of antibiotic therapy despite the observed susceptibility of bacterial isolates in vitro are bacterial biofilms. In this study, we used chitosan of well-defined molecular weight 0.4–0.6, 1.3, 2.6 and 4.0 kDa and investigated their antibiofilm and antibacterial activities in in vitro and in vivo models related to S. aureus IMIs. A chitosan of at least 6 units of glucosamine was necessary for maximum antibacterial activity. The 2.6 and 4.0 kDa forms were able to prevent biofilm production by the biofilm hyperproducer strain S. aureus 2117 and a bovine MRSA methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The intramammary administration of the 2.6 kDa chitosan showed no adverse effects in mice or in cows, as opposed to the slight inflammatory effect observed in mammary glands with the 4.0 kDa derivative. The 2.6 kDa chitosan killed bacteria embedded in pre-established biofilms in a dose-dependent manner with a >3 log10 reduction in CFU at 4 mg-ml. Also, the 2.6 kDa chitosan could prevent the persistence of the internalized MRSA into the mammary epithelial cell line MAC-T. An in vitro checkerboard assay showed that the 2.6 kDa chitosan produced a synergy with the macrolide class of antibiotics e.g., tilmicosin and reduced the MIC of both molecules by 2–8 times. Finally, the intramammary administration of the 2.6 kDa chitosan alone P<0.01 or in combination with tilmicosin P<0.0001 reduced the colonization of mammary glands in a murine IMI model. Our results suggest that the use of chitosan alone or in combination with a low dose of a macrolide could help reduce antibiotic use in dairy farms.



Author: Abdelhamid Asli, Eric Brouillette, Céline Ster, Mariana Gabriela Ghinet, Ryszard Brzezinski, Pierre Lacasse, Mario Jacques, Fran

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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