A Device-Independent Evaluation of Carbonyl Emissions from Heated Electronic Cigarette SolventsReport as inadecuate




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Objectives

To investigate how the two main electronic e- cigarette solvents—propylene glycol PG and glycerol GL—modulate the formation of toxic volatile carbonyl compounds under precisely controlled temperatures in the absence of nicotine and flavor additives.

Methods

PG, GL, PG:GL = 1:1 wt-wt mixture, and two commercial e-cigarette liquids were vaporized in a stainless steel, tubular reactor in flowing air ranging up to 318°C to simulate e-cigarette vaping. Aerosols were collected and analyzed to quantify the amount of volatile carbonyls produced with each of the five e-liquids.

Results

Significant amounts of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were detected at reactor temperatures ≥215°C for both PG and GL. Acrolein was observed only in e-liquids containing GL when reactor temperatures exceeded 270°C. At 318°C, 2.03±0.80 μg of formaldehyde, 2.35±0.87 μg of acetaldehyde, and a trace amount of acetone were generated per milligram of PG; at the same temperature, 21.1±3.80 μg of formaldehyde, 2.40±0.99 μg of acetaldehyde, and 0.80±0.50 μg of acrolein were detected per milligram of GL.

Conclusions

We developed a device-independent test method to investigate carbonyl emissions from different e-cigarette liquids under precisely controlled temperatures. PG and GL were identified to be the main sources of toxic carbonyl compounds from e-cigarette use. GL produced much more formaldehyde than PG. Besides formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, measurable amounts of acrolein were also detected at ≥270°C but only when GL was present in the e-liquid. At 215°C, the estimated daily exposure to formaldehyde from e-cigarettes, exceeded United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA and California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment OEHHA acceptable limits, which emphasized the need to further examine the potential cancer and non-cancer health risks associated with e-cigarette use.



Author: Ping Wang , Wenhao Chen, Jiawen Liao, Toshiki Matsuo, Kazuhide Ito, Jeff Fowles, Dennis Shusterman, Mark Mendell, Kazukiyo Kumaga

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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