Biting Midges Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Cambay Amber Indicate that the Eocene Fauna of the Indian Subcontinent Was Not IsolatedReport as inadecuate




Biting Midges Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Cambay Amber Indicate that the Eocene Fauna of the Indian Subcontinent Was Not Isolated - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

India’s unique and highly diverse biota combined with its unique geodynamical history has generated significant interest in the patterns and processes that have shaped the current distribution of India’s flora and fauna and their biogeographical relationships. Fifty four million year old Cambay amber from northwestern India provides the opportunity to address questions relating to endemism and biogeographic history by studying fossil insects. Within the present study seven extant and three fossil genera of biting midges are recorded from Cambay amber and five new species are described: Eohelea indica Stebner and Szadziewski n. sp., Gedanohelea gerdesorum Stebner and Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea cambayana Stebner and Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea borkenti Stebner and Szadziewski n. sp., and Meunierohelea orientalis Stebner and Szadziewski n. sp. Fossils of species in the genera Leptoconops Skuse, 1889, Forcipomyia Meigen, 1818, Brachypogon Kieffer, 1899, Stilobezzia Kieffer, 1911, Serromyia Meigen, 1818, and Mantohelea Szadziewski, 1988 are recorded without formal description. Furthermore, one fossil belonging to the genus Camptopterohelea Wirth and Hubert, 1960 is included in the present study. Our study reveals faunal links among Ceratopogonidae from Cambay amber and contemporaneous amber from Fushun, China, Eocene Baltic amber from Europe, as well as the modern Australasian and the Oriental regions. These findings imply that faunal exchange between Europe, Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber in the early Eocene.



Author: Frauke Stebner , Ryszard Szadziewski, Hukam Singh, Simon Gunkel, Jes Rust

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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