Loading Patterns of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament in the Healthy Knee: A Systematic ReviewReport as inadecuate




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Background

The posterior cruciate ligament PCL is the strongest ligament of the knee, serving as one of the major passive stabilizers of the tibio-femoral joint. However, despite a number of experimental and modelling approaches to understand the kinematics and kinetics of the ligament, the normal loading conditions of the PCL and its functional bundles are still controversially discussed.

Objectives

This study aimed to generate science-based evidence for understanding the functional loading of the PCL, including the anterolateral and posteromedial bundles, in the healthy knee joint through systematic review and statistical analysis of the literature.

Data sources

MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL

Eligibility criteria for selecting studies

Databases were searched for articles containing any numerical strain or force data on the healthy PCL and its functional bundles. Studied activities were as follows: passive flexion, flexion under 100N and 134N posterior tibial load, walking, stair ascent and descent, body-weight squatting and forward lunge.

Method

Statistical analysis was performed on the reported load data, which was weighted according to the number of knees tested to extract average strain and force trends of the PCL and identify deviations from the norms.

Results

From the 3577 articles retrieved by the initial electronic search, only 66 met all inclusion criteria. The results obtained by aggregating data reported in the eligible studies indicate that the loading patterns of the PCL vary with activity type, knee flexion angle, but importantly also the technique used for assessment. Moreover, different fibres of the PCL exhibit different strain patterns during knee flexion, with higher strain magnitudes reported in the anterolateral bundle. While during passive flexion the posteromedial bundle is either lax or very slightly elongated, it experiences higher strain levels during forward lunge and has a synergetic relationship with the anterolateral bundle. The strain patterns obtained for virtual fibres that connect the origin and insertion of the bundles in a straight line show similar trends to those of the real bundles but with different magnitudes.

Conclusion

This review represents what is now the best available understanding of the biomechanics of the PCL, and may help to improve programs for injury prevention, diagnosis methods as well as reconstruction and rehabilitation techniques.



Author: S. H. Hosseini Nasab, Renate List, Katja Oberhofer, Sandro F. Fucentese, Jess G. Snedeker, William R. Taylor

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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