Biomarkers for Diabetic Retinopathy – Could Endothelin 2 Be Part of the AnswerReport as inadecuate




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Purpose

The endothelins are a family of three highly conserved and homologous vasoactive peptides that are expressed across all organ systems. Endothelin Edn dysregulation has been implicated in a number of pathophysiologies, including diabetes and diabetes-related complications. Here we examined Edn2 and endothelin receptor B Endrb expression in retinae of diabetic mouse models and measured serum Edn2 to assess its biomarker potential.

Materials and Methods

Edn2 and Ednrb mRNA and Edn2 protein expression were assessed in young 8wk and mature 24wk C57Bl-6 wild type; wt, Kimba model of retinal neovascularisation, RNV, Akita Type 1 diabetes; T1D and Akimba mice T1D plus RNV by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Edn2 protein concentration in serum was measured using ELISA.

Results

Fold-changes in Edn2 and Ednrb mRNA were seen only in young Kimba Edn2: 5.3; Ednrb: 6.0 and young Akimba Edn2: 7.9, Ednrb: 8.8 and in mature Kimba Edn2:9.2, Ednrb:11.2 and mature Akimba Edn2:14.0, Ednrb:17.5 mice. Co-localisation of Edn2 with Müller-cell-specific glutamine synthetase demonstrated Müller cells and photoreceptors as the major cell types for Edn2 expression in all animal models. Edn2 serum concentrations in young Kimba, Akita and Akimba mice were not elevated compared to wt. However, in mature mice, Edn2 serum concentration was increased in Akimba 6.9pg-mg total serum protein compared to wt, Kimba and Akita mice 3.9, 4.6, and 3.8pg-mg total serum protein, respectively; p<0.05.

Conclusions

These results demonstrated that long-term hyperglycaemia in conjunction with VEGF-driven RNV increased Edn2 serum concentration suggesting Edn2 might be a candidate biomarker for vascular changes in diabetic retinopathy.



Author: Nicolette Binz , Elizabeth P. Rakoczy , Ireni S. Ali Rahman, Nermina N. Vagaja, Chooi-May Lai

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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