Social Participation and the Prevention of Decline in Effectance among Community-Dwelling Elderly: A Population-Based Cohort StudyReport as inadecuate




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Background

We examined the association between a decline in effectance and social participation SP from the perspective of the number and the type of SP in a prospective cohort study.

Methods

Included in this analysis were community-dwelling elderly aged ≥65 without dependency on the basic activities of daily living and reporting a perfect baseline effectance score n = 4,588; mean age 72.8±5.7. SP was categorized into 5 types: neighborhood associations, hobby groups, local event groups, senior citizen clubs, and volunteer groups. Effectance was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Using logistic regression analysis, odds ratio OR and a 95% confidence interval CI for a decline in effectance were calculated. Age, family, BMI, pensions, medical history, medications, alcohol, smoking, cognitive function, depression, social support, ADL, and IADL were used as covariates.

Results

During the 3-year follow-up, 17.8% of eligible participants reported a decline in effectance. After adjustment for covariates, participation in various groups was associated with the preservation of effectance for both genders. Regarding the type of SP, among females, participation in neighborhood associations OR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.48–0.81, hobby groups 0.58, 0.43–0.77, local event groups 0.63, 0.47–0.86, and volunteer groups 0.53, 0.35–0.82 was inversely associated with a decline in effectance. Among males, the beneficial effect was more likely limited to hobby groups 0.59, 0.43–0.81 and volunteer groups 0.57, 0.39–0.83.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that participation in a variety of social groups is effective for maintenance of older people’s effectance, while the beneficial effect of each type of SP on effectance is stronger for females than for males. Recommending community-dwelling elderly to participate in social groups appropriate for their gender may be effective for successful aging.



Author: Kimiko Tomioka , Norio Kurumatani, Hiroshi Hosoi

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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