The Association of Metabolic Syndrome and UrolithiasisReport as inadecuate




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International Journal of Endocrinology - Volume 2015 2015, Article ID 570674, 9 pages -

Review Article

Department of Urology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK

Department of Biochemical Pathology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK

Received 9 December 2014; Revised 21 February 2015; Accepted 24 February 2015

Academic Editor: Faustino R. Perez-Lopez

Copyright © 2015 Yee V. Wong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

There has been an increasing prevalence of kidney stones over the last 2 decades worldwide. Many studies have indicated a possible association between metabolic syndrome and kidney stone disease, particularly in overweight and obese patients. Many different definitions of metabolic syndrome have been suggested by various organizations, although the definition by the International Diabetes Federation IDF is universally considered as the most acceptable definition. The IDF definition revolves around 4 core components: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of urolithiasis resulting from metabolic syndrome, amongst which are the insulin resistance and Randall’s plaque hypothesis. Similarly the pathophysiology of calcium and uric acid stone formation has been investigated to determine a connection between the two conditions. Studies have found many factors contributing to urolithiasis in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, out of which obesity, overweight, and sedentary lifestyles have been identified as major etiological factors. Primary and secondary prevention methods therefore tend to revolve mainly around lifestyle improvements, including dietary and other preventive measures.





Author: Yee V. Wong, Paul Cook, and Bhaskar K. Somani

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/



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