Forward acceleration of the centre of mass during ski skating calculated from force and motion capture dataReport as inadecuate




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Sports Engineering

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 141–153

First Online: 20 December 2016DOI: 10.1007-s12283-016-0223-9

Cite this article as: Göpfert, C., Pohjola, M.V., Linnamo, V. et al. Sports Eng 2017 20: 141. doi:10.1007-s12283-016-0223-9

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to present and evaluate a methodology to determine the contribution of bilateral leg and pole thrusts to forward acceleration of the centre of mass COM of cross-country skiers from multi-dimensional ground reaction forces and motion capture data. Nine highly skilled cross-country XC skiers performed leg skating and V2-alternate skating V2A under constant environmental conditions on snow, while ground reaction forces measured from ski bindings and poles and 3D motion with high-speed cameras were captured. COM acceleration determined from 3D motion analyses served as a reference and was compared to the results of the proposed methodology. The obtained values did not differ during the leg skating push-off, and force–time curves showed high similarity, with similarity coefficients SC >0.90 in the push-off and gliding phases. In V2A, leg and pole thrusts were shown to contribute 35.1 and 65.9% to the acceleration of the body, respectively. COM acceleration derived from ground reaction forces alone without considering the COM position overestimated the acceleration compared to data from motion analyses, with a mean difference of 17% P < 0.05 during leg push-off, although the shapes of force–time curves were similar SC = 0.93. The proposed methodology was shown to be appropriate for determining the acceleration of XC skiers during leg skating push-off from multi-dimensional ground reaction forces and the COM position. It was demonstrated that both the COM position and ground reaction forces are needed to find the source of acceleration.

KeywordsCross-country skiing Propulsion 3D motion analysis System acceleration Centre of mass 



Author: Caroline Göpfert - Mikko V. Pohjola - Vesa Linnamo - Olli Ohtonen - Walter Rapp - Stefan J. Lindinger

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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