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Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 130, Issue 6, pp 1081–1098

First Online: 17 March 2017Received: 31 July 2016Accepted: 17 February 2017DOI: 10.1007-s00122-017-2880-x

Cite this article as: Nadolska-Orczyk, A., Rajchel, I.K., Orczyk, W. et al. Theor Appl Genet 2017 130: 1081. doi:10.1007-s00122-017-2880-x

Abstract

Key messageCurrent development of advanced biotechnology tools allows us to characterize the role of key genes in plant productivity. The implementation of this knowledge in breeding strategies might accelerate the progress in obtaining high-yielding cultivars.

Abstract The achievements of the Green Revolution were based on a specific plant ideotype, determined by a single gene involved in gibberellin signaling or metabolism. Compared with the 1950s, an enormous increase in our knowledge about the biological basis of plant productivity has opened new avenues for novel breeding strategies. The large and complex genomes of diploid barley and hexaploid wheat represent a great challenge, but they also offer a large reservoir of genes that can be targeted for breeding. We summarize examples of productivity-related genes-mutants in wheat and barley, identified or characterized by means of modern biology. The genes are classified functionally into several groups, including the following: 1 transcription factors, regulating spike development, which mainly affect grain number; 2 genes involved in metabolism or signaling of growth regulators—cytokinins, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids—which control plant architecture and in consequence stem hardiness and grain yield; 3 genes determining cell division and proliferation mainly impacting grain size; 4 floral regulators influencing inflorescence architecture and in consequence seed number; and 5 genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism having an impact on plant architecture and grain yield. The implementation of selected genes in breeding programs is discussed, considering specific genotypes, agronomic and climate conditions, and taking into account that many of the genes are members of multigene families.

Communicated by Rajeev K. Varshney.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1007-s00122-017-2880-x contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.





Author: Anna Nadolska-Orczyk - Izabela K. Rajchel - Wacław Orczyk - Sebastian Gasparis

Source: https://link.springer.com/



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