The Sensitivity of Cancer Cells to Pheophorbide a-Based Photodynamic Therapy Is Enhanced by NRF2 SilencingReport as inadecuate




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Photodynamic therapy PDT has emerged as an effective treatment for various solid tumors. The transcription factor NRF2 is known to protect against oxidative and electrophilic stress; however, its constitutive activity in cancer confers resistance to anti-cancer drugs. In the present study, we investigated NRF2 signaling as a potential molecular determinant of pheophorbide a Pba-based PDT by using NRF2-knockdown breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. Cells with stable NRF2 knockdown showed enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptotic-necrotic cell death following PDT along with increased levels of singlet oxygen and reactive oxygen species ROS. A confocal microscopic visualization of fluorogenic Pba demonstrated that NRF2-knockdown cells accumulate more Pba than control cells. A subsequent analysis of the expression of membrane drug transporters showed that the basal expression of BCRP is NRF2-dependent. Among measured drug transporters, the basal expression of breast cancer resistance protein BCRP; ABCG2 was only diminished by NRF2-knockdown. Furthermore, after incubation with the BCRP specific inhibitor, differential cellular Pba accumulation and ROS in two cell lines were abolished. In addition, NRF2-knockdown cells express low level of peroxiredoxin 3 compared to the control, which implies that diminished mitochondrial ROS defense system can be contributing to PDT sensitization. The role of the NRF2-BCRP pathway in Pba-PDT response was further confirmed in colon carcinoma HT29 cells. Specifically, NRF2 knockdown resulted in enhanced cell death and increased singlet oxygen and ROS levels following PDT through the diminished expression of BCRP. Similarly, PDT-induced ROS generation was substantially increased by treatment with NRF2 shRNA in breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells, colon carcinoma HCT116 cells, renal carcinoma A498 cells, and glioblastoma A172 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the manipulation of NRF2 can enhance Pba-PDT sensitivity in multiple cancer cells.



Author: Bo-hyun Choi, In-geun Ryoo, Han Chang Kang, Mi-Kyoung Kwak

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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