Aberrant Expression of NF-κB in Liver Fluke Associated Cholangiocarcinoma: Implications for Targeted TherapyReport as inadecuate




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Background

Up-regulation and association of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB with carcinogenesis and tumor progression has been reported in several malignancies. In the current study, expression of NF-κB in cholangiocarcinoma CCA patient tissues and its clinical significance were determined. The possibility of using NF-κB as the therapeutic target of CCA was demonstrated.

Methodology

Expression of NF-κB in CCA patient tissues was determined using immunohistochemistry. Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin DHMEQ, a specific NF-κB inhibitor, was used to inhibit NF-κB action. Cell growth was determined using an MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was shown by DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and immunocytofluorescent staining. Effects of DHMEQ on growth and apoptosis were demonstrated in CCA cell lines and CCA-inoculated mice. DHMEQ-induced apoptosis in patient tissues using a histoculture drug response assay was quantified by TUNEL assay.

Principal Findings

Normal bile duct epithelia rarely expressed NF-κB subunits p50, p52 and p65, whereas all CCA patient tissues n  =  48 over-expressed all NF-κB subunits. Inhibiting NF-κB action by DHMEQ significantly inhibited growth of human CCA cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. DHMEQ increased cell apoptosis by decreasing the anti-apoptotic protein expressions–Bcl-2, XIAP–and activating caspase pathway. DHMEQ effectively reduced tumor size in CCA-inoculated mice and induced cell apoptosis in primary histocultures of CCA patient tissues.

Conclusions

NF-κB was over-expressed in CCA tissues. Inhibition of NF-κB action significantly reduced cell growth and enhanced cell apoptosis. This study highlights NF-κB as a molecular target for CCA therapy.



Author: Wunchana Seubwai, Chaisiri Wongkham, Anucha Puapairoj, Narong Khuntikeo, Ake Pugkhem, Chariya Hahnvajanawong, Jariya Chaiyagool,

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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