β-Cryptoxanthin Alleviates Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Suppressing Inflammatory Gene Expression in MiceReport as inadecuate




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Recent nutritional epidemiological surveys showed that serum β-cryptoxanthin inversely associates with the risks for insulin resistance and liver dysfunction. Consumption of β-cryptoxanthin possibly prevents nonalcoholic steatohepatitis NASH, which is suggested to be caused by insulin resistance and oxidative stress from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. To evaluate the effect of β-cryptoxanthin on diet-induced NASH, we fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet CL diet with or without 0.003% β-cryptoxanthin to C56BL-6J mice for 12 weeks. After feeding, β-cryptoxanthin attenuated fat accumulation, increases in Kupffer and activated stellate cells, and fibrosis in CL diet-induced NASH in the mice. Comprehensive gene expression analysis showed that although β-cryptoxanthin histochemically reduced steatosis, it was more effective in inhibiting inflammatory gene expression change in NASH. β-Cryptoxanthin reduced the alteration of expression of genes associated with cell death, inflammatory responses, infiltration and activation of macrophages and other leukocytes, quantity of T cells, and free radical scavenging. However, it showed little effect on the expression of genes related to cholesterol and other lipid metabolism. The expression of markers of M1 and M2 macrophages, T helper cells, and cytotoxic T cells was significantly induced in NASH and reduced by β-cryptoxanthin. β-Cryptoxanthin suppressed the expression of lipopolysaccharide LPS-inducible and-or TNFα-inducible genes in NASH. Increased levels of the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS were reduced by β-cryptoxanthin in NASH. Thus, β-cryptoxanthin suppresses inflammation and the resulting fibrosis probably by primarily suppressing the increase and activation of macrophages and other immune cells. Reducing oxidative stress is likely to be a major mechanism of inflammation and injury suppression in the livers of mice with NASH.



Author: Masuko Kobori , Yinhua Ni, Yumiko Takahashi, Natsumi Watanabe, Minoru Sugiura, Kazunori Ogawa, Mayumi Nagashimada, Shuichi Kaneko

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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