A Genome Wide Association Study of Plasmodium falciparum Susceptibility to 22 Antimalarial Drugs in KenyaReport as inadecuate




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Background

Drug resistance remains a chief concern for malaria control. In order to determine the genetic markers of drug resistant parasites, we tested the genome-wide associations GWA of sequence-based genotypes from 35 Kenyan P. falciparum parasites with the activities of 22 antimalarial drugs.

Methods and Principal Findings

Parasites isolated from children with acute febrile malaria were adapted to culture, and sensitivity was determined by in vitro growth in the presence of anti-malarial drugs. Parasites were genotyped using whole genome sequencing techniques. Associations between 6250 single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs and resistance to individual anti-malarial agents were determined, with false discovery rate adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing. We identified expected associations in the pfcrt region with chloroquine CQ activity, and other novel loci associated with amodiaquine, quinazoline, and quinine activities. Signals for CQ and primaquine PQ overlap in and around pfcrt, and interestingly the phenotypes are inversely related for these two drugs. We catalog the variation in dhfr, dhps, mdr1, nhe, and crt, including novel SNPs, and confirm the presence of a dhfr-164L quadruple mutant in coastal Kenya. Mutations implicated in sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance are at or near fixation in this sample set.

Conclusions-Significance

Sequence-based GWA studies are powerful tools for phenotypic association tests. Using this approach on falciparum parasites from coastal Kenya we identified known and previously unreported genes associated with phenotypic resistance to anti-malarial drugs, and observe in high-resolution haplotype visualizations a possible signature of an inverse selective relationship between CQ and PQ.



Author: Jason P. Wendler , John Okombo , Roberto Amato, Olivo Miotto, Steven M. Kiara, Leah Mwai, Lewa Pole, John O-Brien, Magnus Manske,

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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