Purpurogallin, a Natural Phenol, Attenuates High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induced Vasospasm in a Rat ModelReport as inadecuate




Purpurogallin, a Natural Phenol, Attenuates High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induced Vasospasm in a Rat Model - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

International Journal of Vascular Medicine - Volume 2014 2014, Article ID 254270, 9 pages -

Research Article

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan

Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan

Received 24 September 2014; Revised 30 October 2014; Accepted 30 October 2014; Published 17 November 2014

Academic Editor: Aaron S. Dumont

Copyright © 2014 Chih-Zen Chang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

High-mobility group box 1 HMGB1 was shown to be an important extracellular mediator involved in vascular inflammation of animals following subarachnoid hemorrhage SAH. This study is of interest to examine the efficacy of purpurogallin, a natural phenol, on the alternation of cytokines and HMGB1 in a SAH model. A rodent double hemorrhage SAH model was employed. Basilar arteries BAs were harvested to examine HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression Western blot. CSF samples were to examine IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α rt-PCR. Deformed endothelial wall, tortuous elastic lamina, and necrotic smooth muscle were observed in the vessels of SAH groups but were absent in the purpurogallin group. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the SAH only and SAH plus vehicle groups were significantly elevated . Purpurgallin dose-dependently reduced HMGB1 protein expression. Likewise, high dose purpurogallin reduced TNF-α and HMGB1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, purpurogallin exerts its neuroinflammation effect through the dual effect of inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression and reducing HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression. This study supports purpurogallin could attenuate both proinflammatory cytokines and late-onset inflammasome in SAH induced vasospasm.





Author: Chih-Zen Chang, Chih-Lung Lin, Shu-Chuan Wu, and Aij-Lie Kwan

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/



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