Influence of Calcium in Extracellular DNA Mediated Bacterial Aggregation and Biofilm FormationReport as inadecuate




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Calcium Ca2+ has an important structural role in guaranteeing the integrity of the outer lipopolysaccharide layer and cell walls of bacterial cells. Extracellular DNA eDNA being part of the slimy matrix produced by bacteria promotes biofilm formation through enhanced structural integrity of the matrix. Here, the concurrent role of Ca2+ and eDNA in mediating bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation was studied for the first time using a variety of bacterial strains and the thermodynamics of DNA to Ca2+ binding. It was found that the eDNA concentrations under both planktonic and biofilm growth conditions were different among bacterial strains. Whilst Ca2+ had no influence on eDNA release, presence of eDNA by itself favours bacterial aggregation via attractive acid-base interactions in addition, its binding with Ca2+ at biologically relevant concentrations was shown further increase in bacterial aggregation via cationic bridging. Negative Gibbs free energy ΔG values in iTC data confirmed that the interaction between DNA and Ca2+ is thermodynamically favourable and that the binding process is spontaneous and exothermic owing to its highly negative enthalpy. Removal of eDNA through DNase I treatment revealed that Ca2+ alone did not enhance cell aggregation and biofilm formation. This discovery signifies the importance of eDNA and concludes that existence of eDNA on bacterial cell surfaces is a key facilitator in binding of Ca2+ to eDNA thereby mediating bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation.



Author: Theerthankar Das , Shama Sehar , Leena Koop, Yie Kuan Wong, Safia Ahmed, Khawar Sohail Siddiqui, Mike Manefield

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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