Brain Interleukin-1β and the Intrinsic Receptor Antagonist Control Peripheral Toll-Like Receptor 3-Mediated Suppression of Spontaneous Activity in RatsReport as inadecuate




Brain Interleukin-1β and the Intrinsic Receptor Antagonist Control Peripheral Toll-Like Receptor 3-Mediated Suppression of Spontaneous Activity in Rats - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

During acute viral infections such as influenza, humans often experience not only transient fever, but also prolonged fatigue or depressive feelings with a decrease in social activity for days or weeks. These feelings are thought to be due to neuroinflammation in the brain. Recent studies have suggested that chronic neuroinflammation is a precipitating event of various neurological disorders, but the mechanism determining the duration of neuroinflammation has not been elucidated. In this study, neuroinflammation was induced by intraperitoneal injection of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid poly I:C, a Toll-like receptor-3 agonist that mimics viral infection in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and then investigated how the neuroinflammation shift from acute to the chronic state. The rats showed transient fever and prolonged suppression of spontaneous activity for several days following poly I:C injection. NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, completely prevented fever, but did not improve spontaneous activity, indicating that suppression of spontaneous activity was not induced by the arachidonate cascade that generated the fever. The animals overexpressed interleukin IL-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1ra in the brain including the cerebral cortex. Blocking the IL-1 receptor in the brain by intracerebroventricular i.c.v. infusion of recombinant IL-1ra completely blocked the poly I:C-induced suppression of spontaneous activity and attenuated amplification of brain interferon IFN-α expression, which has been reported to produce fatigue-like behavior by suppressing the serotonergic system. Furthermore, i.c.v. infusion of neutralizing antibody for IL-1ra prolonged recovery from suppression of spontaneous activity. Our findings indicated that IL-1β is the key trigger of neuroinflammation and that IL-1ra prevents the neuroinflammation entering the chronic state.



Author: Masanori Yamato, Yasuhisa Tamura, Asami Eguchi, Satoshi Kume, Yukiharu Miyashige, Masayuki Nakano, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Yosky Kata

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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