Levels of CD56 TIM-3- Effector CD8 T Cells Distinguish HIV Natural Virus Suppressors from Patients Receiving Antiretroviral TherapyReport as inadecuate




Levels of CD56 TIM-3- Effector CD8 T Cells Distinguish HIV Natural Virus Suppressors from Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

Prolonged antiretroviral therapy ART with effective HIV suppression and reconstitution of CD4 T cells, fails to restore CD8 T cell lytic effector function that is needed to eradicate the viral reservoir. Better understanding of the phenotype and function of circulating CD8 cells in HIV patients will contribute to new targeted therapies directed at increasing CD8 T cell lytic effector function and destruction of the viral reservoir. We show that CD8 T cells from ART treated patients had sharply reduced expression of CD56 neural cell adhesion molecule-1, a marker associated with cytolytic function whereas elite patients who control HIV in the absence of ART had CD56+ CD8 T cell levels similar to uninfected controls. The CD56+ CD8 T cells had higher perforin upregulation as well as degranulation following stimulation with HIV gag peptides compared with CD56 negative CD8 T cells. Elite patients had the highest frequencies of perforin producing CD56+ CD8 T cells among all HIV+ groups. In patients receiving ART we noted high levels of the exhaustion marker TIM-3 on CD56+ CD8 T cells, implying that defective effector function was related to immune exhaustion. CD56+ CD8 T cells from elite or treated HIV patients responded to PMA plus ionomycin stimulation, and expressed transcription factors T-bet and EOMES at levels similar to uninfected controls. Consequently, the lytic effector defect in chronic HIV disease is due to immune exhaustion and quantitative loss of CD56+ CD8 T cells and this defect is not repaired in patients where viremia is suppressed and CD4 T cells are recovered after ART.Reconstituting the cytotoxic CD56+ subset of CD8+ T cells through new interventions might improve the lytic effector capacity and contribute to reducing the viral reservoir. Our initial studies indicate that IL-15 treatment partly reverses the CD56 defect, implying that myeloid cell defects could be targeted for immune therapy during chronic HIV disease.



Author: Bhawna Poonia , C. David Pauza

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



DOWNLOAD PDF




Related documents