Incidence of Cercopithifilaria bainae in Dogs and Probability of Co-Infection with Other Tick-Borne PathogensReport as inadecuate




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Background

Cercopithifilaria bainae is a filarioid parasite that infects dogs, being transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks in many countries of the Mediterranean basin. This study assessed the incidence density rate IDR of infection by C. bainae in dogs and the probability of co-infection with other tick-borne pathogens i.e., Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis, in an area of high endemicity in southern Italy.

Methodology-Principal Findings

From March 2011 to October 2012, a field study involving 58 young dogs naturally exposed to tick infestation was conducted. Skin and blood samples obtained from each dog six times during an 18-month period were tested for C. bainae by parasite detection within skin snip sediments, with subsequent confirmation through PCR and DNA sequencing. Dogs examined monthly for ticks and A. platys, B. vogeli and H. canis were microscopically and-or molecularly diagnosed and after the first and the second summer seasons, the IDR for positive animal-month at risk was 3.8% and 1.7% in November 2011 and October 2012, respectively. All 58 C. bainae-infected dogs were simultaneously infected with at least one other tick-borne pathogen. After the first summer season assessment in November 2011, a C. bainae-infected dog had a 33% probability of being infected with H. canis or A. platys, whereas after the second tick season assessment in October 2012 the probability of co-infection was 78%, 22% and 11% for H. canis, A. platys and B. vogeli, respectively.

Conclusions

Our data indicate that tick-infested dogs are at risk of acquiring infection by C. bainae. In addition, the detection of C. bainae microfilariae indicates a prior tick exposure and, should stimulate testing for other tick-borne disease causing pathogens.



Author: Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos, Alessio Giannelli, Riccardo Paolo Lia, Emanuele Brianti, Viviana Domenica Tarallo, Edward B. Bre

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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