STAT3 but Not STAT1 Is Required for Astrocyte DifferentiationReport as inadecuate




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The JAK-STAT signaling pathway has been implicated in astrocyte differentiation. Both STAT1 and STAT3 are expressed in the central nervous system and are thought to be important for glial differentiation, as mainly demonstrated in vitro; however direct in vivo evidence is missing. We investigated whether STAT1 and STAT3 are essential for astrocyte development by testing the STAT responsiveness of astrocyte progenitors. STAT3 was absent in the ventricular zone where glial progenitors are born but begins to appear at the marginal zone at E16.5. At E18.5, both phospho-STAT1 and phospho-STAT3 were present in glial fibrillary acidic protein GFAP-expressing white matter astrocytes. Overexpression of STAT3 by electroporation of chicks in ovo induced increased numbers of astrocyte progenitors in the spinal cord. Likewise, elimination of STAT3 in Stat3 conditional knockout cKO mice resulted in depletion of white matter astrocytes. Interestingly, elimination of STAT1 in Stat1 null mice did not inhibit astrocyte differentiation and deletion of Stat1 failed to aggravate the glial defects in Stat3 cKO mice. Measuring the activity of STAT binding elements and the gfap promoter in the presence of various STAT mutants revealed that transactivation depended on the activity of STAT3 not STAT1. No synergistic interaction between STAT1 and STAT3 was observed. Cortical progenitors of Stat1 null; Stat3 cKO mice generated astrocytes when STAT3 or the splice variant Stat3β was supplied, but not when STAT1 was introduced. Together, our results suggest that STAT3 is necessary and sufficient for astrocyte differentiation whereas STAT1 is dispensable.



Author: Seulgi Hong, Mi-Ryoung Song

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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