Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Should Not Be the Only Sought Marker to Distinguish Blood Donors towards Hepatitis B Virus Infection in High Prevalence AreaReport as inadecuate




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Since its discovery by Blumberg in 1965, the hepatitisB surface antigen HBsAg is used as the fingerprint of hepatitis B infection. Occulthepatitis B infection OBI is defined by a viral replication DNA detectable inthe absence of HBsAg. Burkina Faso is a high endemic area where the prevalence ishigher than 14%. At the National Center for Blood Transfusion NCBT of Ouagadougou,HBsAg is the only sought marker used to distinguish donors towards Hepatitis B VirusHBV. Acceptation of blood donation is based specifically on the absence of HBsAg,which exposes to the risk of HBV transmission during transfusion. The goal of thisstudy is to evaluate this risk by determining the prevalence of OBI in blood donors.Patients and Methods It was a fivemonth prospective study onblood donations collected from January to May 2016. The HBc antibody has been soughtin the serums of negative HBsAg donors. The measure of B DNA by Real Time PCR polymerasechain reaction and of antibodies anti-HBs have been proposed to anti-HBc positive donors. Abdominalultrasound, the transaminases, prothrombin level, alphafeto-proteins, hepatic fibrosishave been proposed to donors who were detectable for the DNA. Sociodemographic parametershave been collected. The test costs were borne by donors who were recalled by phoneto adhere to the study. Results: Among 1980 negative donors HBsAg, 872 44% werepositive for anti-HBc. 160 on 872 donors were received for consultationamong which 76 76-160 wereable to realise DNA which was detectable in 25 donors on 76, thus a prevalence of32.8%. The mean value of DNA was 953 IU-ml. Physical examination and hepatic ultrasoundswere normal except a case where hepatic steatosis was found. The biologic standardhepatic results were in normal range. None of the patient was able to realise hepaticfibrosis evaluation. A case of co-infection HIV-OBI was noted. Conclusion: Thisstudy shows that in Burkina, almost half of blood bags transfused are anti-HBc positiveand around one third 32.8% probably ha HBV DNA. This poses a potential risk of contaminationfor non-immunized recipient. It is thus important that, in addition to HBsAg, Anti-HBcshould be systematically sought in order to minimize the risk.

KEYWORDS

Occult Hepatitis B, Blood Donors, DNA, Anti-HBc

Cite this paper

Somda, K. , Sermé, A. , Coulibaly, A. , Cissé, K. , Sawadogo, A. , Sombié, A. and Bougouma, A. 2016 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Should Not Be the Only Sought Marker to Distinguish Blood Donors towards Hepatitis B Virus Infection in High Prevalence Area. Open Journal of Gastroenterology, 6, 362-372. doi: 10.4236-ojgas.2016.611039.





Author: K. S. Somda*, A. K. Sermé, A. Coulibaly, K. Cissé, A. Sawadogo, A. R. Sombié, A. Bougouma

Source: http://www.scirp.org/



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