Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase AADC Is Crucial for Brain Development and Motor FunctionsReport as inadecuate




Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase AADC Is Crucial for Brain Development and Motor Functions - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase AADC deficiency is a rare pediatric neuro-metabolic disease in children. Due to the lack of an animal model, its pathogenetic mechanism is poorly understood. To study the role of AADC in brain development, a zebrafish model of AADC deficiency was generated. We identified an aadc gene homolog, dopa decarboxylase ddc, in the zebrafish genome. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis showed that the ddc gene is expressed in the epiphysis, locus caeruleus, diencephalic catecholaminergic clusters, and raphe nuclei of 36-h post-fertilization hpf zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Ddc by AADC inhibitor NSD-1015 or anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides MO reduced brain volume and body length. We observed increased brain cell apoptosis and loss of dipencephalic catecholaminergic cluster neurons in ddc morphants ddc MO-injected embryos. Seizure-like activity was also detected in ddc morphants in a dose-dependent manner. ddc morphants had less sensitive touch response and impaired swimming activity that could be rescued by injection of ddc plasmids. In addition, eye movement was also significantly impaired in ddc morphants. Collectively, loss of Ddc appears to result in similar phenotypes as that of ADCC deficiency, thus zebrafish could be a good model for investigating pathogenetic mechanisms of AADC deficiency in children.



Author: De-Fen Shih, Chung-Der Hsiao, Ming-Yuan Min, Wen-Sung Lai, Chianne-Wen Yang, Wang-Tso Lee , Shyh-Jye Lee

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



DOWNLOAD PDF




Related documents