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The pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric syndromes of systemic lupus erythematosus NPSLE is multifactorial and can involve various inflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies such as anti-neuronal antibodies, anti-ribosomal P antibodies, anti-NR2 glutamate receptor binding antibodies, anti-Sm antibodies, anti-U1-RNP antibodies and anti-phospholipid antibodies, and immune complexes IC. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier BBB is integral to the neuropathology of SLE. Recently the possibility has been reported that aforementioned autoantibodies in the circulation may be strongly associated with disruption of the BBB. Each of these mechanisms might contribute to the pathogenesis of focal NPSLE for example, cerebrovascular disease, movement disorders, myelopathy, seizures and cranial neuropathy or diffuse NPSLE for example, acute confusional state, psychosis and cognitive dysfunction to varying degrees. In this review we focus on how the aforementioned autoantibodies, the BBB, IC and cytokines as well as chemokines are associated with the appearance of NPSLE.


Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Anti-Ribosomal P Antibodies, Anti-NR2 Glutamate Receptor Binding Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor, The Blood-Brain Barrier

Cite this paper

Yoshio, T. and Okamoto, H. 2015 Pathogenesis of Neuropsychiatric Syndromes of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases, 5, 46-56. doi: 10.4236-ojra.2015.52009.

Author: Taku Yoshio1*, Hiroshi Okamoto2



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