Climate Change Adaptation and Vulnerability: A Case of Rain Dependent Small-Holder Farmers in Selected Districts in ZambiaReport as inadecuate




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Food cropproduction by small-holder farmers in Africa is particularly vulnerable toclimate change, given high dependence on rainfall coupled with limited adaptivecapacity. In Zambia, smallholder farmers contribute about 79% of nationalstable food requirements particularly maize. This paper attempted to establishlevels of food security in each of the three agro-ecological zones of Zambia,and evaluated the current adaptive measures of rain dependent small-holderfarmers against climate change risks. The challenges farmers are facing inadapting to the change risks were identified and livelihood vulnerabilityassessed. The findings indicate that rain dependent small-holder farmers inZambia are highly vulnerable to weather related shocks which impact greatly ontheir food production; and that the levels of vulnerability vary across genderand per agro-ecological zone. After the evaluation of scenarios includingstaple food crop yields maize, the authors conclude that most rain-fedsmall-holder farmers in Zambia about 70% are facing considerable hardships inadapting to the changing climate, which in turn, undermines their contributionto food security. While efforts by government have been made to assist farmerstowards climate change adaptation, there still remains many challenges toachieve the desired outcomes. Most farmers 66% are unable to afford certainalternatives, such as those of agro-forestry or conservation. Difficulties inaccessing markets, poor road infrastructure, fluctuating market prices, highcosts and late deliveries of farming in-puts were found to be among the majorchallenges that farmers are facing in Zambia. There are also no systematicearly warning systems in place against natural hazards and disasters. Thismakes farming a difficult undertaking in Zambia.

KEYWORDS

Vulnerability, Food Security, Livelihood, Adaptation, Climate Change

Cite this paper

Makondo, C. , Chola, K. and Moonga, B. 2014 Climate Change Adaptation and Vulnerability: A Case of Rain Dependent Small-Holder Farmers in Selected Districts in Zambia. American Journal of Climate Change, 3, 388-403. doi: 10.4236-ajcc.2014.34034.





Author: Cuthbert Casey Makondo1*, Kenneth Chola2, Blesswell Moonga3

Source: http://www.scirp.org/



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