Intracellular and Extracellular pH and Ca Are Bound to Control Mitosis in the Early Sea Urchin Embryo via ERK and MPF ActivitiesReport as inadecuate




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Studies aiming to predict the impact on marine life of ocean acidification and of altered salinity have shown altered development in various species including sea urchins. We have analyzed how external Na, Ca, pH and bicarbonate control the first mitotic divisions of sea urchin embryos. Intracellular free Ca Cai and pH pHi and the activities of the MAP kinase ERK and of MPF regulate mitosis in various types of cells including oocytes and early embryos. We found that intracellular acidification of fertilized eggs by Na-acetate induces a huge activation of ERK at time of mitosis. This also stops the cell cycle and leads to cell death, which can be bypassed by treatment with the MEK inhibitor U0126. Similar intracellular acidification induced in external medium containing low sodium or 5-N-Methyl-N-isobutyl amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na+-H+ exchanger, also stops the cell cycle and leads to cell death. In that case, an increase in Cai and in the phosphorylation of tyr-cdc2 occurs during mitosis, modifications that depend on external Ca. Our results indicate that the levels of pHi and Cai determine accurate levels of Ptyr-Cdc2 and P-ERK capable of ensuring progression through the first mitotic cycles. These intracellular parameters rely on external Ca, Na and bicarbonate, alterations of which during climate changes could act synergistically to perturb the early marine life.



Author: Brigitte Ciapa , Laetitia Philippe

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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