Is Adipocyte Differentiation the Default Lineage for Mesenchymal Stem-Progenitor Cells after Loss of Mechanical Loading A Perspective from Space Flight and Model SystemsReport as inadecuate




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Mesenchymal stem-progenitor cells MSC-MPC are found in many tissues and fluids including bone marrow, adipose tissues, muscle, synovial membranes, synovial fluid, and blood. Such cells from different sources can proliferate and differentiate into different lineages e.g. osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic after suitable stimulation. However, details regarding the regulation of MSC-MPC proliferation and differentiation status are still unclear and it is likely that regulation involves both biological and mechanical influences in the different environments. It has been noted that in humans and preclinical animal models that exposure to microgravity-space flight or prolonged bed rest a surrogate for microgravity can lead to infiltration of skeletal muscle and bone marrow with fat. Similarly, in preclinical models treated with multiple intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin A to induce muscle weakness and atrophy, there is also an infiltration of the muscle with fat. The origins and basis for these fat deposits are largely unknown, but there is a possibility that the altered mechanical and biological environments lead to dysregulation of MSC-MPC and progression to preferential differentiation towards the adipocyte lineage. Furthermore, loss of MSC regulatory control by either mechanical and-or biological factors may also contribute to their involvement in obesity development and progression. Thus, the utility of using MSC-MPC from some sources for tissue engineering purposes may be compromised and further research regarding optimal loading for tissue engineering purposes is likely warranted.

KEYWORDS

Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Adipose-Lineage, Microgravity, Bed Rest, Muscle Weakness, MSC Regulation, Adipose Tissue

Cite this paper

Hart, D. 2014 Is Adipocyte Differentiation the Default Lineage for Mesenchymal Stem-Progenitor Cells after Loss of Mechanical Loading? A Perspective from Space Flight and Model Systems. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 7, 799-808. doi: 10.4236-jbise.2014.710079.





Author: David A. Hart

Source: http://www.scirp.org/



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