Hypoxia Stimulates the EMT of Gastric Cancer Cells through Autocrine TGFβ SignalingReport as inadecuate




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Epithelial mesenchymal transition EMT is considered to be correlated with malignancy of cancer cells and responsible for cancer invasion and metastasis. We previously reported that distant metastasis was associated with hypoxia in gastric cancer. We therefore investigated the effect of hypoxic condition on EMT of gastric cancer cells. Gastric cancer cells were cultured in normoxia 21% O2 or hypoxia 1% O2 for 24 h. EMT was evaluated as the percentage of spindle-shaped cells in total cells. Effect of transforming growth factor β1 TGFβ1 or tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the EMT was evaluated. The expression level of TGFβ1 and TGFβR was evaluated by real time RT-PCR. The TGFβ1 production from cancer cells was measured by ELISA. Hypoxia stimulated EMT of OCUM-2MD3 and OCUM-12 cells, but not that of OCUM-2M cells. The expression level of TGFβ1 mRNA under hypoxia was significantly higher than that under normoxia in all of three cell lines. The expression level of TGFβR mRNA was significantly increased by hypoxia in OCUM-2MD3 cells, but not in OCUM-2M cells. TGFβR inhibitor, SB431542 or Ki26894, significantly suppressed EMT of OCUM-2MD3 and OCUM-12. TGFβ1 production from OCUM-2MD3 and OCUM-12 cells was significantly increased under hypoxia in comparison with that under normoxia. These findings might suggest that hypoxia stimulates the EMT of gastric cancer cells via autocrine TGFβ-TGFβR signaling.



Author: Junko Matsuoka, Masakazu Yashiro , Yosuke Doi, Yuhiko Fuyuhiro, Yukihiro Kato, Osamu Shinto, Satoru Noda, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, N

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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