Superoxide Mediates Direct Current Electric Field-Induced Directional Migration of Glioma Cells through the Activation of AKT and ERKReport as inadecuate




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Direct current electric fields DCEFs can induce directional migration for many cell types through activation of intracellular signaling pathways. However, the mechanisms that bridge extracellular electrical stimulation with intracellular signaling remain largely unknown. In the current study, we found that a DCEF can induce the directional migration of U87, C6 and U251 glioma cells to the cathode and stimulate the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the electrotaxis of glioma cells were abolished by the superoxide inhibitor N-acetyl-l-cysteine NAC or overexpression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase MnSOD, but was not affected by inhibition of hydrogen peroxide through the overexpression of catalase. Furthermore, we found that the presence of NAC, as well as the overexpression of MnSOD, could almost completely abolish the activation of Akt, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase Erk1-2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK, and p38, although only JNK and p38 were affected by overexpression of catalase. The presenting of specific inhibitors can decrease the activation of Erk1-2 or Akt as well as the directional migration of glioma cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that superoxide may play a critical role in DCEF-induced directional migration of glioma cells through the regulation of Akt and Erk1-2 activation. This study provides novel evidence that the superoxide is at least one of the -bridges- coupling the extracellular electric stimulation to the intracellular signals during DCEF-mediated cell directional migration.



Author: Fei Li, Tunan Chen, Shengli Hu, Jiangkai Lin, Rong Hu, Hua Feng

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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