Polyanionic Candidate Microbicides Accelerate the Formation of Semen-Derived Amyloid Fibrils to Enhance HIV-1 InfectionReport as inadecuate




Polyanionic Candidate Microbicides Accelerate the Formation of Semen-Derived Amyloid Fibrils to Enhance HIV-1 Infection - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

Polyanionic candidate microbicides, including cellulose sulfate, carrageenan, PRO 2000, were proven ineffective in preventing HIV-1 transmission and even cellulose sulfate showed increased risk of HIV acquisition in the Phase III efficacy trials. Semen plays critical roles in HIV-1 sexual transmission. Specifically, amyloid fibrils formed by fragments of prostatic acidic phosphatase PAP in semen termed semen-derived enhancer of virus infection SEVI could drastically enhance HIV-1 infection. Here we investigated the interaction between polyanions and PAP248-286, a prototype peptide of SEVI, to understand the possible cause of polyanionic candidate microbicides to fail in clinical trials. We found anionic polymers could efficiently promote SEVI fibril formation, most likely mediated by the natural electrostatic interaction between polyanions and PAP248-286, as revealed by acid native PAGE and Western blot. The overall anti-HIV-1 activity of polyanions in the presence or absence of PAP248-286 or semen was evaluated. In the viral infection assay, the supernatants of polyanions-PAP248-286 or polyanions-semen mixtures containing the free, unbound polyanionic molecules showed a general reduction in antiviral efficacy, while the pellets containing amyloid fibrils formed by the polyanion-bound PAP248-286 showed aggravated enhancement of viral infection. Collectively, from the point of drug-host protein interaction, our study revealed that polyanions facilitate SEVI fibril formation to promote HIV-1 infection, thus highlighting a molecular mechanism underlying the failure of polyanions in clinical trials and the importance of drug-semen interaction in evaluating the anti-HIV-1 efficacy of candidate microbicides.



Author: Suiyi Tan, Lu Lu, Lin Li, Jixiang Liu, Yelena Oksov, Hong Lu, Shibo Jiang , Shuwen Liu

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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