Prevalence of HIV and Associated Factors among Infants Born to HIV Positive Women in Amhara Region, EthiopiaReport as inadecuate




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Background: Anestimated 1.2 percent of pregnant women are living with HIV in Ethiopia andsadly, one of every 3 children born to these women is infected with HIV.Elimination of these mother-to-child transmissions MTCT of HIV is possiblethrough HIV testing during pregnancy and taking antiretroviral medications.However, only 24 percent of pregnant women living with HIV have yet receivedthe medication needed to prevent MTCT of HIV in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Hence,there exists a concern that the rate of HIV infection among infants born to HIVpositive mothers might be high. This study assessed the prevalence of HIVinfection and associated factors among infants born to women living with HIV. Methods:All eligible records of HIV-exposed infants enrolled between January andDecember 2012 were reviewed from 17 health facilities which were providingPMTCT services. The study included 434 HIV-exposed infants having HIV DNA-PCRtest result. Data were collected using structured data extraction formats. Datawere then entered into EPI INFO Version 3.5.1 and analyzed by SPSS Version 16.0.Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to calculate oddsratios and to control for the effect of confounding. Result: The prevalence of HIVamong exposed infants was 10.1%. Delay in HIV diagnosis AOR = 1.3, mixedinfant feeding AOR = 8.8, failure to receive antiretroviral therapy duringpregnancy or breast feeding AOR = 21.6, failure to attend skilled deliveryservice AOR = 6.1 and shorter duration of HIV treatment AOR = 12 were thefactors that increase the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in thisstudy. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV among infants born to HIV positivewomen in the region is close to the national estimate of 10.9%. Delayed HIVdiagnosis, inadequate use of antiretroviral therapy and lack of skilleddelivery care were the factors that enhance mother-to-child transmission of HIV.Having such a significant figure in the era of the world’s pledge to eliminateMTCT of HIV is unbearable. Ensuring access and use of integrated PMTCT servicesshould be the top priorities of the national PMTCT program.

KEYWORDS

Antiretroviral Therapy, HIV-Exposed Infants, DNA-PCR, PMTCT, Prevalence of HIV

Cite this paper

Berhan, Z. , Abebe, F. , Gedefaw, M. and Tesfa, M. 2014 Prevalence of HIV and Associated Factors among Infants Born to HIV Positive Women in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5, 464-474. doi: 10.4236-ijcm.2014.58065.





Author: Zelalem Berhan, Fantu Abebe, Molla Gedefaw, Mulugeta Tesfa

Source: http://www.scirp.org/



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