Levels of Aqueous Humor Trace Elements in Patients with Non-Exsudative Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Case-control StudyReport as inadecuate




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Trace elements might play a role in the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration AMD. The aim of this study was to measure alterations of trace elements levels in aqueous humor of patients with non-exsudative dry AMD.For this pilot study, aqueous humor samples were collected from patients undergoing cataract surgery. 12 patients with dry AMD age 77.9±6.62, female 8, male 4 and 11 patients without AMD age 66.6±16.7, female 7, male 4 were included. Aqueous levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc were measured by use of Flow-Injection-Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry FI-ICP-MS, quality controlled with certified standards.Patients with AMD had significantly higher aqueous humor levels of cadmium median: 0.70 µmol-L, IQR: 0.40–0.84 vs. 0.06 µmol-L; IQR: 0.01–.018; p = 0.002, cobalt median: 3.1 µmol-L, IQR: 2.62–3.15 vs. 1.17 µmol-L; IQR: 0.95–1.27; p<0.001, iron median: 311 µmol-L, IQR: 289–329 vs. 129 µmol-L; IQR: 111–145; p<0.001 and zinc median: 23.1 µmol-L, IQR: 12.9–32.6 vs. 5.1 µmol-L; IQR: 4.4–9.4; p = 0.020 when compared with patients without AMD. Copper levels were significantly reduced in patients with AMD median: 16.2 µmol-L, IQR: 11.4–31.3 vs. 49.9 µmol-L; IQR: 32.0–.142.0; p = 0.022 when compared to those without. No significant differences were observed in aqueous humor levels of manganese and selenium between patients with and without AMD. After an adjustment for multiple testing, cadmium, cobalt, copper and iron remained a significant factor in GLM models adjusted for age and gender of the patients for AMD.Alterations of trace element levels support the hypothesis that cadmium, cobalt, iron, and copper are involved in the pathogenesis of AMD.



Author: Anselm G. M. Jünemann , Piotr Stopa, Bernhard Michalke, Anwar Chaudhri, Udo Reulbach, Cord Huchzermeyer, Ursula Schlötzer-Schre

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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