A Finite Element Study of Crack Behavior for Carbon Na-notube Reinforced Bone CementReport as inadecuate




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Polymethylmethacrylate PMMA bone cement is a polymeric materialthat is widely used as a structural orthopedic material. However, it is notan ideal material for bone grafting due to its fragility. Carbon nanotubesCNTs have been introduced in order to reinforce PMMA resulting in a compositematerial which exhibits improved tensile properties, increased fatigueresistance and fracture toughness. This improvement is potentially due tobridging and arresting cracks as well as absorption of energy. In this study, atwo-dimensional finite element model is presented for the fractureanalysis of PMMA-CNT composite material. Instead of the classical single fibermodel, the present work considers an ensemble of CNTs interacting with apre-existing crack. Casca is used to produce a two dimensional mesh and thefracture analysis is performed using Franc 2D. The model issubjected to uni-axial loading in the transverse plane and the interactionbetween the crack and CNTs is evaluated by determining the stressintensity factor in the vicinity of the crack tips. The effects of geometricparameters of the CNTs and the material structural heterogeneity on crackpropagation trajectory are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of CNTdiameter, wall thickness and elastic mismatch between the matrix and thenanotubes on crack growth are studied. The results illustrate that the CNTsrepel cracks during loading as they act as barriers to crack growth. As aresult, the incorporation of CNTs into PMMA reduces crack growth but moreimportantly increases the fracture resistance of bone cement.

KEYWORDS

Bone Cement; Carbon Nanotube; Finite Element; Crack Propagation; Stress Intensity Factor

Cite this paper

K. Saffar, A. Najafi, M. Moeinzadeh and L. Sudak -A Finite Element Study of Crack Behavior for Carbon Na-notube Reinforced Bone Cement,- World Journal of Mechanics, Vol. 3 No. 5A, 2013, pp. 13-21. doi: 10.4236-wjm.2013.35A003.





Author: Kaveh PourAkbar Saffar, Ahmad Raeisi Najafi, Manssour H. Moeinzadeh, Leszek J. Sudak

Source: http://www.scirp.org/



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