Evidence for Vocal Learning and Limited Dispersal as Dual Mechanisms for Dialect Maintenance in a ParrotReport as inadecuate




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Studies of avian vocal dialects commonly find evidence of geographic and acoustic stability in the face of substantial gene flow between dialects. The vocal imitation and reduced dispersal hypotheses are alternatives to explain this mismatch between vocal and genetic variation. We experimentally simulated dispersal in the yellow-naped amazon Amazona auropalliata by moving individuals within and across dialect boundaries in Costa Rica. One juvenile translocated across dialect boundaries altered its contact call to imitate the acoustic form of the local call six weeks post-release. In contrast, four adults translocated across dialect boundaries returned to their original capture site within 120 days, while five cross-dialect translocated adults who remained at the release site did not alter their contact calls. Translocated individuals were observed to show some segregation from resident flocks. The observation of vocal imitation by the juvenile bird supports the vocal imitation, whereas the behavior of adults is more consistent with the reduced dispersal hypotheses. Taken together, our results suggest that both post-dispersal learning by juveniles and high philopatry in adults could explain the stability of vocal dialects in the face of immigration and gene flow.



Author: Alejandro Salinas-Melgoza , Timothy F. Wright

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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