Rac-Induced Left Ventricular Dilation in Thyroxin-Treated ZmRacD Transgenic Mice: Role of Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis and Myocardial FibrosisReport as inadecuate




Rac-Induced Left Ventricular Dilation in Thyroxin-Treated ZmRacD Transgenic Mice: Role of Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis and Myocardial Fibrosis - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

The pathways inducing the critical transition from compensated hypertrophy to cardiac dilation and failure remain poorly understood. The goal of our study is to determine the role of Rac-induced signaling in this transition process. Our previous results showed that Thyroxin T4 treatment resulted in increased myocardial Rac expression in wild-type mice and a higher level of expression in Zea maize RacD ZmRacD transgenic mice. Our current results showed that T4 treatment induced physiologic cardiac hypertrophy in wild-type mice, as demonstrated by echocardiography and histopathology analyses. This was associated with significant increases in myocardial Rac-GTP, superoxide and ERK1-2 activities. Conversely, echocardiography and histopathology analyses showed that T4 treatment induced dilated cardiomyopathy along with compensatory cardiac hypertrophy in ZmRacD mice. These were linked with further increases in myocardial Rac-GTP, superoxide and ERK1-2 activities. Additionally, there were significant increases in caspase-8 expression and caspase-3 activity. However, there was a significant decrease in p38-MAPK activity. Interestingly, inhibition of myocardial Rac-GTP activity and superoxide generation with pravastatin and carvedilol, respectively, attenuated all functional, structural, and molecular changes associated with the T4-induced cardiomyopathy in ZmRacD mice except the compensatory cardiac hypertrophy. Taken together, T4-induced ZmRacD is a novel mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy that shares many characteristics with the human disease phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show graded Rac-mediated O2·− results in cardiac phenotype shift in-vivo. Moreover, Rac-mediated O2·− generation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and myocardial fibrosis seem to play a pivotal role in the transition from cardiac hypertrophy to cardiac dilation and failure. Targeting Rac signaling could represent valuable therapeutic strategy not only in saving the failing myocardium but also to prevent this transition process.



Author: Mohammad T. Elnakish, Mohamed D. H. Hassona, Mazin A. Alhaj, Leni Moldovan, Paul M. L. Janssen, Mahmood Khan, Hamdy H. Hassanain

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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