Toxoplasma gondii Infection in the Brain Inhibits Neuronal Degeneration and Learning and Memory Impairments in a Murine Model of Alzheimers DiseaseReport as inadecuate




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Immunosuppression is a characteristic feature of Toxoplasma gondii-infected murine hosts. The present study aimed to determine the effect of the immunosuppression induced by T. gondii infection on the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer-s disease AD in Tg2576 AD mice. Mice were infected with a cyst-forming strain ME49 of T. gondii, and levels of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and nitric oxide, anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β, neuronal damage, and β-amyloid plaque deposition were examined in brain tissues and-or in BV-2 microglial cells. In addition, behavioral tests, including the water maze and Y-maze tests, were performed on T. gondii-infected and uninfected Tg2576 mice. Results revealed that whereas the level of IFN-γ was unchanged, the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in T. gondii-infected mice than in uninfected mice, and in BV-2 cells treated with T. gondii lysate antigen. Furthermore, nitrite production from primary cultured brain microglial cells and BV-2 cells was reduced by the addition of T. gondii lysate antigen TLA, and β-amyloid plaque deposition in the cortex and hippocampus of Tg2576 mouse brains was remarkably lower in T. gondii-infected AD mice than in uninfected controls. In addition, water maze and Y-maze test results revealed retarded cognitive capacities in uninfected mice as compared with infected mice. These findings demonstrate the favorable effects of the immunosuppression induced by T. gondii infection on the pathogenesis and progression of AD in Tg2576 mice.



Author: Bong-Kwang Jung , Kyoung-Ho Pyo , Ki Young Shin, Young Sang Hwang, Hyoungsub Lim, Sung Joong Lee, Jung-Ho Moon, Sang Hyung Lee, Y

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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