Exploring Uncoupling Proteins and Antioxidant Mechanisms under Acute Cold Exposure in Brains of FishReport as inadecuate




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Exposure to fluctuating temperatures accelerates the mitochondrial respiration and increases the formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species ROS in ectothermic vertebrates including fish. To date, little is known on potential oxidative damage and on protective antioxidative defense mechanisms in the brain of fish under cold shock. In this study, the concentration of cellular protein carbonyls in brain was significantly increased by 38% within 1 h after cold exposure from 28°C to 18°C of zebrafish Danio rerio. In addition, the specific activity of superoxide dismutase SOD and the mRNA level of catalase CAT were increased after cold exposure by about 60% 6 h and by 60%–90% 1 and 24 h, respectively, while the specific glutathione content as well as the ratio of glutathione disulfide to glutathione remained constant and at a very low level. In addition, cold exposure increased the protein level of hypoxia-inducible factor HIF by about 50% and the mRNA level of the glucose transporter zglut3 in brain by 50%–100%. To test for an involvement of uncoupling proteins UCPs in the cold adaptation of zebrafish, five UCP members were annotated and identified zucp1-5. With the exception of zucp1, the mRNA levels of the other four zucps were significantly increased after cold exposure. In addition, the mRNA levels of four of the fish homologs zppar of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR were increased after cold exposure. These data suggest that PPARs and UCPs are involved in the alterations observed in zebrafish brain after exposure to 18°C. The observed stimulation of the PPAR-UCP axis may help to prevent oxidative damage and to maintain metabolic balance and cellular homeostasis in the brains of ectothermic zebrafish upon cold exposure.



Author: Yung-Che Tseng , Ruo-Dong Chen , Magnus Lucassen, Maike M. Schmidt, Ralf Dringen, Doris Abele, Pung-Pung Hwang

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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