Identification of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Binding Sites and Target Genes Using ChIP-on-Chip in Developing Mouse CerebellumReport as inadecuate




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Thyroid hormone TH is critical to normal brain development, but the mechanisms operating in this process are poorly understood. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation to enrich regions of DNA bound to thyroid receptor beta TRβ of mouse cerebellum sampled on post natal day 15. Enriched target was hybridized to promoter microarrays ChIP-on-chip spanning −8 kb to +2 kb of the transcription start site TSS of 5000 genes. We identified 91 genes with TR binding sites. Roughly half of the sites were located in introns, while 30% were located within 1 kb upstream 5′ of the TSS. Of these genes, 83 with known function included genes involved in apoptosis, neurodevelopment, metabolism and signal transduction. Two genes, MBP and CD44, are known to contain TREs, providing validation of the system. This is the first report of TR binding for 81 of these genes. ChIP-on-chip results were confirmed for 10 of the 13 binding fragments using ChIP-PCR. The expression of 4 novel TH target genes was found to be correlated with TH levels in hyper-hypothyroid animals providing further support for TR binding. A TRβ binding site upstream of the coding region of myelin associated glycoprotein was demonstrated to be TH-responsive using a luciferase expression system. Motif searches did not identify any classic binding elements, indicating that not all TR binding sites conform to variations of the classic form. These findings provide mechanistic insight into impaired neurodevelopment resulting from TH deficiency and a rich bioinformatics resource for developing a better understanding of TR binding.



Author: Hongyan Dong , Carole L. Yauk, Andrea Rowan-Carroll, Seo-Hee You, R. Thomas Zoeller, Iain Lambert, Michael G. Wade

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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