cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I Is Implicated in the Regulation of the Timing and Quality of Sleep and WakefulnessReport as inadecuate




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Many effects of nitric oxide NO are mediated by the activation of guanylyl cyclases and subsequent production of the second messenger cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate cGMP. cGMP activates cGMP-dependent protein kinases PRKGs, which can therefore be considered downstream effectors of NO signaling. Since NO is thought to be involved in the regulation of both sleep and circadian rhythms, we analyzed these two processes in mice deficient for cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I PRKG1 in the brain. Prkg1 mutant mice showed a strikingly altered distribution of sleep and wakefulness over the 24 hours of a day as well as reductions in rapid-eye-movement sleep REMS duration and in non-REM sleep NREMS consolidation, and their ability to sustain waking episodes was compromised. Furthermore, they displayed a drastic decrease in electroencephalogram EEG power in the delta frequency range 1–4 Hz under baseline conditions, which could be normalized after sleep deprivation. In line with the re-distribution of sleep and wakefulness, the analysis of wheel-running and drinking activity revealed more rest bouts during the activity phase and a higher percentage of daytime activity in mutant animals. No changes were observed in internal period length and phase-shifting properties of the circadian clock while chi-squared periodogram amplitude was significantly reduced, hinting at a less robust oscillator. These results indicate that PRKG1 might be involved in the stabilization and output strength of the circadian oscillator in mice. Moreover, PRKG1 deficiency results in an aberrant pattern, and consequently a reduced quality, of sleep and wakefulness, possibly due to a decreased wake-promoting output of the circadian system impinging upon sleep.



Author: Sonja Langmesser , Paul Franken , Susanne Feil, Yann Emmenegger, Urs Albrecht , Robert Feil

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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