Protection of Rhesus Monkeys by a DNA Prime-Poxvirus Boost Malaria Vaccine Depends on Optimal DNA Priming and Inclusion of Blood Stage AntigensReport as inadecuate




Protection of Rhesus Monkeys by a DNA Prime-Poxvirus Boost Malaria Vaccine Depends on Optimal DNA Priming and Inclusion of Blood Stage Antigens - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

Background

We have previously described a four antigen malaria vaccine consisting of DNA plasmids boosted by recombinant poxviruses which protects a high percentage of rhesus monkeys against Plasmodium knowlesi Pk malaria. This is a multi-stage vaccine that includes two pre-erythrocytic antigens, PkCSP and PkSSP2TRAP, and two erythrocytic antigens, PkAMA-1 and PkMSP-142kD. The present study reports three further experiments where we investigate the effects of DNA dose, timing, and formulation. We also compare vaccines utilizing only the pre-erythrocytic antigens with the four antigen vaccine.

Methodology

In three experiments, rhesus monkeys were immunized with malaria vaccines using DNA plasmid injections followed by boosting with poxvirus vaccine. A variety of parameters were tested, including formulation of DNA on poly-lactic co-glycolide PLG particles, varying the number of DNA injections and the amount of DNA, varying the interval between the last DNA injection to the poxvirus boost from 7 to 21 weeks, and using vaccines with from one to four malaria antigens. Monkeys were challenged with Pk sporozoites given iv 2 to 4 weeks after the poxvirus injection, and parasitemia was measured by daily Giemsa stained blood films. Immune responses in venous blood samples taken after each vaccine injection were measured by ELIspot production of interferon-γ, and by ELISA.

Conclusions

1 the number of DNA injections, the formulation of the DNA plasmids, and the interval between the last DNA injection and the poxvirus injection are critical to vaccine efficacy. However, the total dose used for DNA priming is not as important; 2 the blood stage antigens PkAMA-1 and PkMSP-1 were able to protect against high parasitemias as part of a genetic vaccine where antigen folding is not well defined; 3 immunization with PkSSP2 DNA inhibited immune responses to PkCSP DNA even when vaccinations were given into separate legs; and 4 in a counter-intuitive result, higher interferon-γ ELIspot responses to the PkCSP antigen correlated with earlier appearance of parasites in the blood, despite the fact that PkCSP vaccines had a protective effect.



Author: Walter R. Weiss , Anita Kumar, George Jiang, Jackie Williams, Anthony Bostick, Solomon Conteh, David Fryauff, Joao Aguiar, Manmoh

Source: http://plos.srce.hr/



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