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Classical Swine Fever—An Updated Review


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1

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Suedufer 10, 17493 Greifswald, Germany

2

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Institute of Epidemiology, Suedufer 10, 17493 Greifswald, Germany





*

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Abstract Classical swine fever CSF remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities. View Full-Text

Keywords: porcine viruses; Pestivirus; classical swine fever; clinical signs; pathogenesis; epidemiology; diagnosis; control; vaccination; marker strategy porcine viruses; Pestivirus; classical swine fever; clinical signs; pathogenesis; epidemiology; diagnosis; control; vaccination; marker strategy





Author: Sandra Blome 1,* , Christoph Staubach 2, Julia Henke 1, Jolene Carlson 1 and Martin Beer 1

Source: http://mdpi.com/



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