Synergy and Transition of Recovery Efficiency of Nitrogen Fertilizer in Various Rice Genotypes under Organic FarmingReport as inadecuate


Synergy and Transition of Recovery Efficiency of Nitrogen Fertilizer in Various Rice Genotypes under Organic Farming


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1

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology-Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China

2

Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Lixiahe Region in Jiangsu, Yangzhou 225007 China





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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Academic Editor: Sean Clark

Abstract Despite the growing demand for organic products, research on organic farming OF such as genotype screening, fertilizer application and nutrition uptake remains limited. This study focused on comparisons of the apparent recovery efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer REN in rice grown under OF and conventional farming CF. Thirty-two representative conventional Japonica rice varieties were field grown under five different treatments: control check CK; organic farming with low, medium and high levels of organic fertilizer LO, MO and HO, respectively; and CF. Comparisons of REN between OF and CF classified the 32 genotypes into four types: high REN under both OF and CF type-A; high REN under OF and low REN under CF type-B; low REN under OF and high REN under CF type-C; and low REN under both OF and CF type-D. Though the yield and REN of all the rice varieties were higher with CF than with OF, organic N efficient type-A and B were able to maintain relatively high grain yield under OF. Physiological activities in flag leaves of the four types from booting to maturity were subsequently investigated under OF and CF. Under OF, high values of soil and plant analyzer development SPAD and N were observed in type-B varieties, while in contrast, both indexes slowly decreased in type-C varieties under CF. Moreover, the decline in N content in type-C and D varieties was greater under OF than CF. The decrease in glutamine synthetase GS, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase GPT and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase GOT activity in flag leaves was smaller under OF than CF in type-A and B varieties, while in contrast, type-C and D varieties showed an opposite trend. The findings suggest that OF slows the decline in key enzymes of N metabolism in organic N-efficient type rice, thus maintaining a relatively high capacity for N uptake and utilization and increasing yield during the late growth period. Accordingly, we were able to screen for varieties of rice with synergistically high REN and high grain yield under OF. View Full-Text

Keywords: organic farming; recovery efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer; rice; conventional farming; glutamine synthetase activity organic farming; recovery efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer; rice; conventional farming; glutamine synthetase activity





Author: Lifen Huang 1,* , Jie Yang 1, Xiaoyi Cui 1, Huozhong Yang 1, Shouhong Wang 2 and Hengyang Zhuang 1,*

Source: http://mdpi.com/



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