Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006Report as inadecuate




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Food & Nutrition Database Research, Inc., 1801 Shadywood Lane, Okemos, MI 48864, USA

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Nutrition Impact, LLC, 9725 D Drive North, Battle Creek, MI 49014, USA

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Childrens Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College, Department of Pediatrics, 1100 Bates Avenue, Houston, TX 77030, USA

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Didactic Program in Dietetics, 261 Knapp Hall, Louisiana State University AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA





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Abstract Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old n = 7332 in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food-food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy — milk 7% of energy and cake-cookies-quick bread-pastry-pie 7%; protein — milk 13.2% and poultry 12.8%; total carbohydrate — soft drinks-soda 10.5% and yeast bread-rolls 9.1%; total sugars — soft drinks-soda 19.2% and yeast breads and rolls 12.7%; added sugars — soft drinks-soda 29.7% and candy-sugar-sugary foods 18.6%; dietary fiber — fruit 10.4% and yeast bread-rolls 10.3%; total fat — cheese 9.3% and crackers-popcorn-pretzels-chips 8.4%; saturated fatty acids — cheese 16.3% and milk 13.3%; cholesterol — eggs 24.2% and poultry 13.2%; vitamin D — milk 60.4% and milk drinks 8.3%; calcium — milk 33.2% and cheese 19.4%; potassium — milk 18.8% and fruit juice 8.0%; and sodium — salt 18.5% and yeast bread and rolls 8.4%. Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods-food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets. View Full-Text

Keywords: NHANES; energy intake; nutrients; children; adolescents; food groups NHANES; energy intake; nutrients; children; adolescents; food groups





Author: Debra R. Keast 1, Victor L. Fulgoni 2, Theresa A. Nicklas 3 and Carol E. ONeil 4,*

Source: http://mdpi.com/



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