Advances and Recent Trends in Heterogeneous PhotoElectro-Catalysis for Solar Fuels and ChemicalsReport as inadecuate




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Heterogeneous Catalysis, Institute of Chemical & Engineering Sciences ICES, A * Star, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, 627833, Singapore





Academic Editor: Pierre Pichat

Abstract In the context of a future renewable energy system based on hydrogen storage as energy-dense liquid alcohols co-synthesized from recycled CO2, this article reviews advances in photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis that exploit solar photonic primary energy in relevant endergonic processes, viz., H2 generation by water splitting, bio-oxygenate photoreforming, and artificial photosynthesis CO2 reduction. Attainment of the efficiency >10% mandated for viable techno-economics USD 2.00–4.00 per kg H2 and implementation on a global scale hinges on the development of photoelectrocatalysts and co-catalysts composed of earth-abundant elements offering visible-light-driven charge separation and surface redox chemistry in high quantum yield, while retaining the chemical and photo-stability typical of titanium dioxide, a ubiquitous oxide semiconductor and performance -benchmark-. The dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell and multi-junction Si are key -voltage-biasing- components in hybrid photovoltaic-photoelectrochemical PV-PEC devices that currently lead the field in performance. Prospects and limitations of visible-absorbing particulates, e.g., nanotextured crystalline α-Fe2O3, g-C3N4, and TiO2 sensitized by C-N-based dopants, multilayer composites, and plasmonic metals, are also considered. An interesting trend in water splitting is towards hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel and value-added green reagent. Fundamental and technical hurdles impeding the advance towards pre-commercial solar fuels demonstration units are considered. View Full-Text

Keywords: solar fuels; heterogeneous photocatalysis; water splitting; renewable hydrogen; visible sensitization; hydrogen peroxide; bio-oxygenates photoreforming; electrocatalysis; carbon dioxide reduction solar fuels; heterogeneous photocatalysis; water splitting; renewable hydrogen; visible sensitization; hydrogen peroxide; bio-oxygenates photoreforming; electrocatalysis; carbon dioxide reduction





Author: James Highfield

Source: http://mdpi.com/



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