Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress: A Vicious Nexus Implicated in Bowel Disease PathophysiologyReport as inadecuate


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress: A Vicious Nexus Implicated in Bowel Disease Pathophysiology


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress: A Vicious Nexus Implicated in Bowel Disease Pathophysiology - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

School of Health Science, University of Tasmania, Newnham TAS 7248, Australia





*

Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Academic Editor: Masato Matsuoka

Abstract The endoplasmic reticulum ER is a complex protein folding and trafficking organelle. Alteration and discrepancy in the endoplasmic reticulum environment can affect the protein folding process and hence, can result in the production of misfolded proteins. The accumulation of misfolded proteins causes cellular damage and elicits endoplasmic reticulum stress. Under such stress conditions, cells exhibit reduced functional synthesis, and will undergo apoptosis if the stress is prolonged. To resolve the ER stress, cells trigger an intrinsic mechanism called an unfolded protein response UPR. UPR is an adaptive signaling process that triggers multiple pathways through the endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane transducers, to reduce and remove misfolded proteins and improve the protein folding mechanism, in order to improve and maintain endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. An increasing number of studies support the view that oxidative stress has a strong connection with ER stress. During the protein folding process, reactive oxygen species are produced as by-products, leading to impaired reduction-oxidation redox balance conferring oxidative stress. As the protein folding process is dependent on redox homeostasis, the oxidative stress can disrupt the protein folding mechanism and enhance the production of misfolded proteins, causing further ER stress. It is proposed that endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress together play significant roles in the pathophysiology of bowel diseases. View Full-Text

Keywords: endoplasmic reticulum stress; unfolded protein response; oxidative stress; antioxidant mechanisms; misfolded protein; inflammatory bowel disease endoplasmic reticulum stress; unfolded protein response; oxidative stress; antioxidant mechanisms; misfolded protein; inflammatory bowel disease





Author: Wai Chin Chong, Madhur D. Shastri * and Rajaraman Eri *

Source: http://mdpi.com/



DOWNLOAD PDF




Related documents