Zebrafish as an Alternative Vertebrate Model for Investigating Developmental Toxicity—The Triadimefon ExampleReport as inadecuate


Zebrafish as an Alternative Vertebrate Model for Investigating Developmental Toxicity—The Triadimefon Example


Zebrafish as an Alternative Vertebrate Model for Investigating Developmental Toxicity—The Triadimefon Example - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

Laboratory of Toxicological Control of Pesticides, Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, Attika 44561, Greece





*

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.



Academic Editor: Juliette Legler

Abstract Triadimefon is a widely used triazole fungicide known to cause severe developmental defects in several model organisms and in humans. The present study evaluated in detail the developmental effects seen in zebrafish embryos exposed to triadimefon, confirmed and expanded upon previous phenotypic findings and compared them to those observed in other traditional animal models. In order to do this, we exposed embryos to 2 and 4 µg-mL triadimefon and evaluated growth until 120 h post-fertilization hpf through gross morphology examination. Our analysis revealed significant developmental defects at the highest tested concentration including somite deformities, severe craniofacial defects, a cleft phenotype along the three primary neural divisions, a rigorously hypoplastic or even absent mandible and a hypoplastic morphology of the pharyngeal arches. Interestingly, massive pericardial edemas, abnormal shaped hearts, brachycardia and inhibited or absent blood circulation were also observed. Our results revealed that the presented zebrafish phenotypes are comparable to those seen in other organism models and those derived from human observations as a result of triadimefon exposure. We therefore demonstrated that zebrafish provide an excellent system for study of compounds with toxic significance and can be used as an alternative model for developmental toxicity studies to predict effects in mammals. View Full-Text

Keywords: zebrafish; alternative model; developmental toxicity; triadimefon zebrafish; alternative model; developmental toxicity; triadimefon





Author: Maria Zoupa and Kyriaki Machera *

Source: http://mdpi.com/



DOWNLOAD PDF




Related documents